История Словении


The history of Slovenia chronicles the period of the Slovene territory from prehistory until today.

Short history

Slovenia is a young country by global standards, having been independent since 1991. The ancestors of the Slovenes were Slavs who migrated from the Carpathians to the present-day territory in the 6th Century, before a hundred years later founding the oldest known Slavic State, Carantania.

Until the 20th Century, Slovenia was under foreign rule, mostly by the Habsburg monarchy of Austro-Hungary. During this time, the Slovenes emerged as a nation and forged their own identity, despite oppression and sustained pressure to assimilate. Slovenia became part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia after the First World War, then part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia after the Second World War. After more than 70 years of living in Yugoslavia, the Slovenes built a consensus to strike out an independent path, almost 90% of the population voting for independence in the 1990 referendum. Slovenia joined the EU in 2004, and also became a member of Nato. European currency Euro was assumed on 1st January 2007.


Important historical milestones 

6th century

 Slovenian ancestors first settled in this area.

7th century

 Duchy of Carantania, the first Slovenian state.

9th century

 Freising Documents, the oldest records in the Slovenian language.

14th century to 1918

 Slovenian regions become a part of the Habsburg Monarchy, later the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.

Middle 15th century

 A short period of the principality of Celje, which was the last political formation with its centre in the Slovenian territory.

16th century

 The Reformation period sets the foundation for the Slovene literary language. In 1550, the first Slovenian book is printed (by Primož Trubar) and in 1584, the Bible is translated into Slovenian               (by Jurij Dalmatin).


 The Illyrian Provinces (half of Slovenia was part of the French Empire), Slovenian national consciousness strengthens.


 Demand for unification of all Slovenians into one kingdom within the Austrian Empire – United Slovenia Programme.


 End of World War One. After unsuccessful efforts to divide the Habsburg Monarchy into Austria, Hungary and the South Slavic area and the downfall of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, the Slovenian   ethnical territory breaks into 4 countries. In the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians (the Kingdom of Yugoslavia), the Slovenian territory is first divided into two administrative units (under the  authority of Ljubljana and Maribor) and then united into the Drava Banovina (Drava Province).


 The union of Prekmurje with the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians.

29 November 1945

 Slovenians get their own Republic within the framework of the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia.

15 September 1947

 Reunification of the greater part of Primorska with Slovenia on the basis of the Paris Peace Treaty.

April 1990

 First democratic elections.

December 1990

 Plebiscite for a sovereign and independent country (88.5% of registered voters voted in favour);

25 June 1991

 Slovenia declares independence.

23 December 1991

 Adoption of the new Slovenian Constitution.

15 January 1992

 The European Union officially recognises Slovenia.

22 May 1992

 Slovenia becomes a permanent member of the UN.

1 February 1999

 The association agreement with the EU comes into force.

29 March 2004

 Slovenia becomes a member of NATO.

1 May 2004

 Slovenia becomes a member of the EU.

1 January 2007

 Slovenia introduces the Euro.